Lesson 1

Урок 6

* Transitive And Intransitive Verbs:

A Transitive verb is a verb that denotes an action which passes over from the
doer or Subject to an Object.
An Intransitive Verb is a verb that denotes an action which does not pass over to
an object, or which expresses a state or being.

The boy ate the meal = Kurh y nan xuard (transitive)

He ran home = Eq bezy e mal (Intransitive)

The baby sleeps = Mindal/dergus, di nivi^t (Intr)

Kurdish compound verbs can be either Transitive or Intransitive irrespective
of the transivity of the verb they are composed of; as,

Bon : To become (Intr.)

Fe^r bon : To learn (Trans.)

Ru^ nis,tin : To sit down ( Intr.)

Ve bon : To open (Intr.)

Ve kirdin : To open (Trans.)
* The Causative Verb:

Is a regular Transitive Verb, and denotes the meaning ‘to cause or to make’.
It has always an Intransitive Verb from whose stem it is formed. Thus, the
infinitive form of the Causative Verb is formed regularly from the verb stem of
its Intransitive Verb by adding ‘-ANDIN’; as,

Bezh: runner, looserBezhi^n: to run, looseBezhandin: to win, to overcome
C,en: BenderC,ewi^n: to bendC,ewandin: to bend
Keul: warmer, boilerKeuli^n: to boilKeulandin: to boil

The passive form is formed by using ‘-Yan’ instead of ‘-Andin’.

BezhBezhinBezhyan: to be run
C,enC,eminC,emyan: to be bent
KeulKeuli^nKeulyan: to be boiled

The infinitve form is formed by adding ‘-i^n’


* Verbs of Incomplete Prediction:

The boy sleeps = Zaro di nivi^t
The boy seems good = Kurh dyer e ye^ bas, e

Incomplete PredictionComplete Prediction
————————- ———————
Ev kelem e.. :this penEve kelem e: This is the pen
Ev kelem ene..: These pen..Eve/Evene kelem in : These are (the) pens.

* The Infinitive of the Verb:

The verb stemInfinitive of the verbSimple abstract noun of the verb action
————- ———————- —————————————-

Kus,tKus,tin : to killkus,tar : the killing
KirdKirdin: to do, to makekiryar: the deed, make
Birhbirhi^n: to cutbirhyar: cut

Present and past tense of the infinitve verbs:

Infinitive verbIts past stemIts present stem
—————- ————— ——————
C,u^on: to goC,u^oC,
Hatin: to comeHatHe^
Xuardin: to eatXuardXuo
Kus,tin: to killKus,tKuj
Giri^n: to cryGiri^Giri^
Gotin : to sayGotBe^j
Nivi^sti^n: to writenivi^si^nivi^s

‘-In’ suffix is used to form infinite form of a verb.

VerbInfinitive suffixInfinite verb
Got-INGotIN:to say
Di^t-INDi^tIN:to see
Mird-INMirdIN: to die

The verbs end with a wovel gets ‘-N’ to form infinitive verbs

Bo-NBoN: to become
Ma-NMaN: to stay
Bu^o-NBu^on: to be

‘-Iran’ or ‘-Ran’ is added to the present verb stem (or past) of the
infinitive of the transitive verb to form the infinitive of the verb
in the Passive Voices; as,

VerbThe infinitive of the verb in passive voice

Kuj (present) Kujiran: to be killed
Got (past)Gotiran: to be said
S,u (present)S,uran: to be washed

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