Lesson 1

Урок 8

SIMPLE PAST TENSE:

The simple past tense is used:

(1) To indicate an action completed in tha past

I did not sleep last night = Ez bas, ne nivistim

(2) The simple past tense may be used in exclamatory sentences beginning
with here and there to express what is actually taking place in the present; as

There he comes = Ew ye^ he^, eve hat.

The proper Kurdish idiom for such an expression is:

Aha! Eve hat = Aha! This came

The simple past tense is formed:

Intransitive Verb:

The conjugational Inflective Suffixes relate to, i.e., concord with
the subject and indicate the number and person of the subject, except
that the Third Person Singular form of the verb in the simple past tense
does not take any conjugational Inflective suffix and remains as past tense
verb stem of the infinitive

PersonSingularPlural
——- ———————
FirstEz c,u^om=I wentEm c,u^oyn=We went
SecondTu c,u^oy=You wentHu^ng c,u^on=You went
ThirdEw c,u^o=He(she) wentEw c,u^on=They went

Transitive Verb:

The Conjugational Inflective Suffixes related to, and concord with the
direct object, i.e., indicate the person and number of the direct object.

PersonSingular ObjectPlural Object
———————-

FirstMin nan xuardMin hu^ng di^tin
=I ate the meal=I saw you

SecondTe nan xuardHungo ew nasin
=You ate the meal=You knew them

ThirdTe ew di^t=You saw himTe ew di^tin=You saw them
Wy(we^) mirov di^tWand kakej nivi^si^n
=He saw the man=They wrote the letter

The unpossesive class of person pronouns i.e., ‘EZ’- group, are used
as the direct object of the transitive verb in the simple past tense,
and the conjugational inflective suffixes indicate the number and
person of the direct object; as,

Direct ObjSingularPlural
—————————
FirstTe ez di^timHungo em di^ti^n
=You saw me=You saw us

SecondWe^ tu di^tyWan hu^ng di^ti^n
=He(she) saw youThey saw you

ThirdMin ew di^tMin ew di^tin
=I saw him(her)=I saw them

SIMPLE PAST TENSE IN PASSIVE VOICE:

The simple past tense is formed ny conjugating the verb ‘hatin’ (to come)
in the simple past tense, followed by the complement article ‘E’, preceding
the infinitive form of the transitive verb in the active voice.

PersonActivePassive
————————
1st, Sing.Min mirov di^tMirow hat e di^tin
=I saw the man=The man was seen

2nd, SingMin tu di^tyTu haty e di^tin
=I saw you=You were seen

3rd, Sing.Wy(we^) ew di^tEw hat e di^tin
=He(she) saw him(her)=He(she) was seen

1rd, Plu.Me mirow di^tinMirov hatin e di^tin
=We saw the man=The man were seen

2rd, Plu.Hungo em di^ti^nEm hati^n e di^tin
=You saw us=We were seen

3rd, Plu.Wan ew di^tinEw hatin e di^tin
=They saw them=They were seen
The simple past tense is also formed :

from the infinitive form of the verb in passive voices that ends in;

(A) ‘-YAN’, by using its past verb stem that ends in ‘-YA’, and
conjugating it in the usual way as an intrasitive verb with the direct object
of the transitive verb in active voice as its subject as;
The infinitive of the transitive verb in passive voice ‘to be overcome
=BEZHYAN’. Its past stem in passive voice ‘BEZHYA-‘.

PersonSingularPlural
——————-

1stEz bezhyam=I was overcomeEm bezhyayn=We were overcome
2ndTu bezhyay=You were overcomeHu^ng bezhyan=You were overcome
3rdEw bezhya=He(she) was overcomeEw bezhyan=They were overcome

(B)’-IRAN’ or ‘-RAN’, by using its past verb stem which ends in ‘-IRA’,
or ‘-RA’, and conjugating it in the usual way as an intransitive
verb with the direct object of the transitive verb in active voice as its subject; as,

PersonSingularPlural
——————-

1stEz di^tiram=I was seenEm di^tirayn=We were seen
2ndTu di^tiray=You were seenHu^ng di^tiran=You were seen
3rdEw di^tita=He was seenEw di^tiran=They were seen

Standard Kurdish Grammar by F. R. Akrawy

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