Lesson 1

Урок 3

A proper noun:
Muhammad: Heme, Memed
Smith: Smi^t, Smi^s
Kurdistan: Kurdistan
Common noun:

Collective noun: Material or substance
Comittee= Hencuman; Army=Les,kir; Nation=Gel

Abstract noun: A name of quality, a quantity.
Goodness=Bas,y; Fourth= C,uare^k; Theft=Dizy

Grammar=Re^ziman; Music=Mezi^ke; Hundred=Sed
Year=Sal; Month= Meh; Week=Hevty

Abstract nouns are formed
—from adjectives by suffixation of ‘-Y’; as,

Nouns; Adjective
Cuany=Beauty; Cuan=Beautiful
Xues,y=Pleasure; Xues,=Pleasant

—from verbs by addition of suffixes ‘-YAR’ or ‘-AR’

Verb; Infinitive Forms; Abstract Noun
Kus,t; Kus,tin=to kill; Kus,tar=killing
Kird; Kirdin=to do; Kiryar

The formation of some Kurdish nouns:

‘-VAN’, to denote guardina; as, ‘Rezvan=Gardener’
‘-KAR’, to denote doer or implification with or possession of ; as, ‘nivkar=tenant’, ‘mi^ni^kar=well-wisher’
‘-GIR’, to denote working in, as ‘Asingir=blacksmith’, ‘ze^rhi^ngir=jeweller’
‘-DAR’, to denote holder of, or possessing or inflicted by; as, ‘bri^ndar=wounded’, ‘nazdar=dear’
‘-STAN, -XANE, -GEH -GAH’, to denote the place or country; as, ‘Kurdistan=the country of Kurds’
‘-YAR’, to denote working with; as, ‘Cotyar=peasant’
‘-DAN’, to denote holder; as, ‘S,ekirdan=sugarpot’
‘-BEZ’, denotes addiction, loyalty; as, ‘s,ahbaz=royalist’
‘-ANE’, denotes wages; as, ‘salane=annual subscription’, ‘mangane=monthly wages’, ‘rojane=daily wages’
‘-MAN, -MANC’, denote pertaining to ..etc; as, ‘kirdmanc=labourer’, ‘segman=dogkeeper’
b)-From two/Nouns:

Otter= segav; Cousin=pismam, Wheel=virhvirhe
Winding= pec,epec,; Face=devuc,av
wood,forest=darubar; Red-rose=sorgul; white-headed=serspy

NE- is equivalent to the English ‘un, dis-‘ ..etc
NExues,y=UNpleasantness; NExues,=sick

In Kurdish unlike in English -every noun is personified, i.e. has a gender (as in French), either of masculine (male) or feminine (female)a, or common gender (both sexes).

Dar y (masculine): the wood; Dar e^ (feminine) : the three
Nan y (masculine): the meal; Nan e^ (feminine) : The loaf of bread.

The plural of nouns is formed by adding ‘AN’ to the singular, and ‘N’ only if singular noun ends in ‘A’; as,

the boy=Kurh y, the boys=Kurhan;
the girl=Kic,e^, the girls-Kic,an

Standard Kurdish Grammar by F.R. Akrawy

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