Lesson 1

Урок 5




There are two forms of Personal Pronouns.

* Unpossesive Forms:

Person SingularPlural
FirstEz = IEm = We
SecondTu = YouHu^ng, Hu^n = You
ThirdEw = He, She, ItEw = They

* Possesive Forms:

Masculine Feminine
First Min Min = I, me Me=We, us
Second Te Te = Thou, thy Hungo, E^we=You, your
Third Wy =he, his We^ = She, her Wan=they, their

This is his book = Eve nivi^s,ty ya wy e
I am a good girl = Ez kic, ‘eka bas, im
He is my son = Ew Kuh ‘e^ min e
She is my daughter = Ew kic, ‘a min e

There is no neuter gender of the third person of the Personal Pronoun
‘it’ in Kurdish.


The world ‘Self’= ‘Xue’ is used in Kurdish as:

I saw myself = Min xue di^t
We saw ourselves=Me xue di^ti^n

‘With myselfe’=Pixue’
I will do it myselfe=Ez hu^ng pixue di^tin


This is a present from my uncle=Eve dyary yek e li apo’e^ min


They are the words which refer to persons or things in a general way
but not to any person or thing in particular. These words are:

One = Ye^k, kes, kesan, kesek, kesanak, mirov, mirovec…etc.
Person = Kes…etc, as ‘one’ above.
Nobody = Kes…, C,ukes, C,umirov
All = Hemu^
Many = Gelek, zor, c,end
Some = Hindik, ke^m, ke^mek
The other = Ye^tdy
Everybody = Herkes, herkesan, herkesanek
Anybody = Herc,ikes, herkes
They = Goya, di be^jin. de le^n

Is anybody there? Kes li we^re^ hey e?
No, nobody = Neu, kes li we^re^ ny’e


They are the words which refer to persons or things one at a time.

Each boy took his turn = Her kurh ‘eky gory ya xue girt


The word ‘Ye^kudo’ which means ‘each other’ is a called Reciprocal Pronouns.

The friends recognized one another = Hevalan ye^kudo nasy e ve
We saw each other = Em ye^kudo(hev u do) di bi^ni^n
You know each other = Hu^ng ye^kudo du nasin


There are no relative pronouns such as ‘who, which, that, whose,…’
in Kurdish. The function of relative pronouns is accomplished as follows:
By using the word ‘that’ or ‘those’ in the unpossessive case.

I met Peero who had just returned = Min Pi^ro di^t ew ye^kue taze haty e ve
I have found the pen which I had lost = Min kelem ye^ di^ty e ve, ew
ye^ kue min bezir kirdy

I say what I mean = Ez di be^jim c,i ye^ kue Ez di manim


Who is there? Ky li we^re^ e (hey e)?
Of whom do you speak?=Tu li ke^ di axivy?
Which is the house?=Ky’e mal?
Which do you prefer, teaor coffee?=Te c,i pe^ xues,tir e, c,ay yan gehwe?
Who came?= Ky hat?
Who ate?=Ke^ xuard?
Whose pen is this? Ew kelem e ye^ ke^’ e?


C,itov C,iru^n C,ewa=What type or manner?

What are you?=Tu c,i y?
I am a doctor=Ez pizi^s,ik’ek im
Who are you=Tu ky y?
I am F. Peerany = Ez Freydon ‘e^ Pi^rany me

Who is he?= Ew ky e?
Who is that?=Ky e ew?
Who are they?=Ew ky ne?
Who are those?=Ky ne ew?

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